||Chevrier, C., Gege, C., Mazza, F., Montanari, R., Pochetti, G., Taveras, A.G.
The mode of binding and the activity of the first two non-zinc chelating, potent, and selective inhibitors of human neutrophil collagenase are reported. The crystal structures of the catalytic domain of MMP-8, respectively complexed with each inhibitor, reveals that both ligands are deeply inserted into the primary specificity subsite S(1)', where they induce a similar conformational change of the surrounding loop that is endowed with the main specificity determinants of MMPs. Accord to this rearrangement, both inhibitors remove the floor of the pocket formed by the Y227 side-chain, rendering available an extra binding region never explored before. The present data show that potent and more selective inhibitors can be obtained by developing ligands able to interact with the selectivity regions of the enzyme rather than with the catalytic zinc ion, which is the common feature of all MMP members.
J.Med.Chem. 2009 Feb; 52(4):1040-1049 doi:10.1021/jm801166j
Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) is a Zn(2+)-dependent protease that catalyzes the cleavage of type II collagen, the main structural protein in articular cartilage. Excess MMP13 activity causes cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis, making this protease an attractive therapeutic target. However, clinically tested MMP inhibitors have been associated with a painful, joint-stiffening musculoskeletal side effect that may be due to their lack of selectivity. In our efforts to develop a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug, we have discovered MMP13 inhibitors that differ greatly from previous MMP inhibitors; they do not bind to the catalytic zinc ion, they are noncompetitive with respect to substrate binding, and they show extreme selectivity for inhibiting MMP13. By structure-based drug design, we generated an orally active MMP13 inhibitor that effectively reduces cartilage damage in vivo and does not induce joint fibroplasias in a rat model of musculoskeletal syndrome side effects. Thus, highly selective inhibition of MMP13 in patients may overcome the major safety and efficacy challenges that have limited previously tested non-selective MMP inhibitors. MMP13 inhibitors such as the ones described here will help further define the role of this protease in arthritis and other diseases and may soon lead to drugs that safely halt cartilage damage in patients.
J.Biol.Chem. 2007 Sep; 282(38):27781-27791 doi:10.1074/jbc.M703286200
The paradigm for matrix metalloprotease inhibition combines active site tailoring and catalytic zinc ligation. But, selectivity has been difficult. Now, Engel et al. present novel compounds, completely selective for MMP-13, with a unique binding mode.
Chem.Biol. 2005 Feb; 12(2):181-189 doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2004.11.014
Human macrophage elastase (MMP-12) plays an important role in inflammatory processes and has been implicated in diseases such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is therefore an attractive target for therapeutic agents. As part of a structure-based drug design programme to find new inhibitors of MMP-12, the crystal structures of the MMP-12 catalytic domain (residues 106-268) complexed to three different non-peptidic small molecule inhibitors have been determined. The structures reveal that all three ligands bind in the S1' pocket but show varying degrees of interaction with the Zn atom. The structures of the complexes with inhibitors CP-271485 and PF-00356231 reveal that their central morpholinone and thiophene rings, respectively, sit over the Zn atom at a distance of approximately 5A, locating the inhibitors halfway down the S1' pocket. In both of these structures, an acetohydroxamate anion, an artefact of the crystallisation solution, chelates the zinc atom. By contrast, the acetohydroxamate anion is displaced by the ligand in the structure of MMP-12 complexed to PD-0359601 (Bayer), a potent zinc chelating N-substituted biaryl butyric acid, used as a reference compound for crystallisation. Although a racemate was used for the crystallisation, the S enantiomer only is bound in the crystal. Important hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and residues from the S1' pocket are observed in all of the structures. The relative selectivity displayed by these ligands for MMP-12 over other MMP family members is discussed.
J.Mol.Biol. 2004 Aug; 341(4):1063- doi:10.1016/J.JMB.2004.06.039