||Bertini, I., Calderone, V., Fragai, M., Jaiswal, R., Luchinat, C., Melikian, M., Mylonas, E., Svergun, D.I.
The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases toward extracellular matrix components (ECM), cytokines, chemokines, and membrane receptors is crucial for several homeostatic and pathological processes. Active MMPs are a family of single-chain enzymes (23 family members in the human genome), most of which constituted by a catalytic domain and by a hemopexin-like domain connected by a linker. The X-ray structures of MMP-1 and MMP-2 suggest a conserved and well-defined spatial relationship between the two domains. Here we present structural data for MMP-12, suitably stabilized against self-hydrolysis, both in solution (NMR and SAXS) and in the solid state (X-ray), showing that the hemopexin-like and the catalytic domains experience conformational freedom with respect to each other on a time scale shorter than 10(-8) s. Hints on the probable conformations are also obtained. This experimental finding opens new perspectives for the often hypothesized active role of the hemopexin-like domain in the enzymatic activity of MMPs.
J.Am.Chem.Soc. 2008 Jun; 130(22):7011-7021 doi:10.1021/ja710491y
"Vertebrate collagenases, members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, initiate interstitial fibrillar collagen breakdown. It is essential in many biological processes, and unbalanced collagenolysis is associated with diseases such as arthritis, cancer, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and fibrosis. These metalloproteinases are secreted from the cell as inactive precursors, procollagenases (proMMPs). To gain insights into the structural basis of their activation mechanisms and collagen binding, we have crystallized recombinant human proMMP-1 and determined its structure to 2.2 A resolution. The catalytic metalloproteinase domain and the C-terminal hemopexin (Hpx) domain show the classical MMP-fold, but the structure has revealed new features in surface loops and domain interaction. The prodomain is formed by a three-helix bundle and gives insight into the stepwise activation mechanism of proMMP-1. The prodomain interacts with the Hpx domain, which affects the position of the Hpx domain relative to the catalytic domain. This interaction results in a ""closed"" configuration of proMMP-1 in contrast to the ""open"" configuration observed previously for the structure of active MMP-1. This is the first evidence of mobility of the Hpx domain in relation to the catalytic domain, providing an important clue toward the understanding of the collagenase-collagen interaction and subsequent collagenolysis."
J.Biol.Chem. 2005 Mar; 280(10):9578-9585 doi:10.1074/jbc.M411084200
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of multidomain enzymes involved in the physiological degradation of connective tissue, as well as in pathological states such as tumor invasion and arthritis. Apart from transcriptional regulation, MMPs are controlled by proenzyme activation and a class of specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) that bind to the catalytic site. TIMP-2 is a potent inhibitor of MMPs, but it has also been implicated in a unique cell surface activation mechanism of latent MMP-2/gelatinase A/type IV collagenase (proMMP-2), through its binding to the hemopexin domain of proMMP-2 on the one hand and to a membrane-type MMP activator on the other. The present crystal structure of the human proMMP-2/TIMP-2 complex reveals an interaction between the hemopexin domain of proMMP-2 and the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2, leaving the catalytic site of MMP-2 and the inhibitory site of TIMP-2 distant and spatially isolated. The interfacial contact of these two proteins is characterized by two distinct binding regions composed of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. This unique structure provides information for how specificity for noninhibitory MMP/TIMP complex formation is achieved.
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 2002 May; 99(11):7414- doi:10.1073/PNAS.102185399