||Adler, M., Alicke, B., Arnaiz, D.O., Biroc, S.L., Bryant, J., Buckman, B.O., Chang, Z., Dinter, H., Feldman, R.I., Ferrer, M., Finster, S., Kochanny, M.J., Lentz, D., Polokoff, M.A., Whitlow, M., Wu, J.M., Yuan, S., Zhu, D.
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)/Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, and tumor angiogenesis and represents a promising target for anticancer drugs. Here, we describe three potent PDK1 inhibitors, BX-795, BX-912, and BX-320 (IC(50) = 11-30 nm) and their initial biological characterization. The inhibitors blocked PDK1/Akt signaling in tumor cells and inhibited the anchorage-dependent growth of a variety of tumor cell lines in culture or induced apoptosis. A number of cancer cell lines with elevated Akt activity were >30-fold more sensitive to growth inhibition by PDK1 inhibitors in soft agar than on tissue culture plastic, consistent with the cell survival function of the PDK1/Akt signaling pathway, which is particularly important for unattached cells. BX-320 inhibited the growth of LOX melanoma tumors in the lungs of nude mice after injection of tumor cells into the tail vein. The effect of BX-320 on cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo indicates that PDK1 inhibitors may have clinical utility as anticancer agents.
J.Biol.Chem. 2005 May; 280(20):19867-19874 doi:10.1074/jbc.M501367200
"3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a key role in regulating signalling pathways by activating AGC kinases such as PKB/Akt and S6K. Here we describe the 2.0 A crystal structure of the PDK1 kinase domain in complex with ATP. The structure defines the hydrophobic pocket termed the ""PIF-pocket"", which plays a key role in mediating the interaction and phosphorylation of certain substrates such as S6K1. Phosphorylation of S6K1 at its C-terminal PIF-pocket-interacting motif promotes the binding of S6K1 with PDK1. In the PDK1 structure, this pocket is occupied by a crystallographic contact with another molecule of PDK1. Interestingly, close to the PIF-pocket in PDK1, there is an ordered sulfate ion, interacting tightly with four surrounding side chains. The roles of these residues were investigated through a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies, the results of which confirm that this region of PDK1 represents a phosphate-dependent docking site. We discuss the possibility that an analogous phosphate-binding regulatory motif may participate in the activation of other AGC kinases. Furthermore, the structure of PDK1 provides a scaffold for the design of specific PDK1 inhibitors."
Embo J. 2002 Aug; 21(16):4219- doi:10.1093/EMBOJ/CDF437